Free public-domain images of The Camino Real in New Mexico. Use as you wish with no restrictions or notifications.
The area comprising the SAN LUIS VALLEY and RIO GRANDE NATIONAL FOREST has a rich and colorful history.
Native American Paleo-Indian cultures, beginning with the Clovis and Folsom Complexes (11,000 years ago) were the first know inhabitants of the area. These and the following cultures of the Archaic Stage and the Ute Indians lived by hunting animals and gathering native plants found in the area.
The Spanish began exploring the San Luis area during the late 1500’s. In an attempt to get people to settle the area, Mexico established numerous land grants within the Spanish territory. In 1770, Don Juan Baustista de Anza traveled through the San Luis Valley and over Poncha Pass in attempt to crush the Comanches who threatened the Spanish settlers.
The valley remained largely unsettled until the area became the territory of the United States around 1850.
The first permanent settlement in Colorado, known as San Luis de la Culebra, was established in 1851 on the Rio Culebra River on the Sangre de Cristo Grant.
To protect the early settlers in the valley, Fort Massachusetts was established, north of San Luis, in 1852.
La Loma de San Jose, near present Del Norte, was first inhabited by Hispanic families in 1859 that left the Santa Fe area. Irrigation ditches were constructed and farms established. More extensive farming activities began in the 1880’s near Hooper and the area near Monte Vista where large-scale irrigation systems were built.
Below is the link to order the book. It has many interesting facts on the valley and its origins.
In March 1853, Antoine Leroux published in the New York Times an essay about his travels in New Mexico and Colorado. I think that you'll find it very interesting.
Here is movie about New Mexico history told through the eyes of a Jewish Immigrant.
An award-winning short drama about Solomon Bibo, a German Jewish immigrant who becomes governor of the Native American tribe of Acoma in New Mexico in the late 1800s. Coming to the Wild West as a young man, Solomon learns how to ride a horse, shoot a gun, play poker with the outlaws and make friends with the "Indians" from his grandpa's tall tales. He marries a beautiful girl from Acoma Pueblo, a thousand-year-old settlement that still sits atop an unassailable cliff in the middle of a ?New Mexico desert. As a well-known trader and friend of the tribe, Solomon is chosen to be governor of his wife’s pueblo, an unprecedented feat for a non-native. Life throws him many curves after that – he defends the pueblo against powerful enemies, fights for progress but loses to tradition, his friends turn against him, great earthquakes and great depressions wipe him out, but he always fights back… and always remains… a Moses on the Mesa.
A great film and journey, below is a link for more info.
A new find on a 13000 year old girl and her American roots.
A teenage girl may have gotten lost in a cave looking for water, nearly 13,000 years ago. Naia, as she's known today, likely fell to her death in a deep, dark pit. Now, her remains are shining a light on the genetic heritage of what we believe are the first people in the Americas. Researchers have discovered Naia's bones in a pit in an underwater cave system in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Her skeleton, described in the journal Science this week, is one of the oldest of any humans found in the Americas. She comes from a group of ancient people anthropologists call Paleoamericans.
A new effort into finding decadents of Jews in Spain and Portugal has gone global.
NEW YORK, NY, September 9 – An ambitious and far-reaching effort to locate the descendants of Iberian Crypto-Jews (Bnei Anousim), launched by the Jerusalem-based nonprofit Shavei Israel, has set off an avalanche of interest, with tens of thousands of people rushing to discover if they are historically connected to the Jewish people.
Here is a good introduction into the genetics of Indigenous Americans.
The genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas primarily focuses on Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups and Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. Autosomal"atDNA" markers are also used, but differ from mtDNA or Y-DNA in that they overlap significantly. The genetic pattern indicates Indigenous Amerindians experienced two very distinctive genetic episodes; first with the initial peopling of the Americas, and secondly with European colonization of the Americas. The former is the determinant factor for the number of gene lineages, zygosity mutations and founding haplotypes present in today's Indigenous Amerindian populations.
A more unknown explorer, yet still very instrumental in the discovery of the new world.
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (Jerez de la Frontera, c. 1488/1490/1492 – Seville, c. 1557/1558/1559/1560) was a Spanish explorer of the New World, and one of four survivors of the 1527 Narváez expedition. During eight years of traveling across the US Southwest, he became a trader and faith healer to various Native American tribes before reconnecting with Spanish colonial forces in Mexico in 1536. After returning to Spain in 1537, he wrote an account, first published in 1542 as La Relación ("The Relation", or in more modern terms "The Account"), which in later editions was retitled Naufragios ("Shipwrecks"). Cabeza de Vaca has been considered notable as a proto-anthropologist for his detailed accounts of the many tribes of American Indians that he encountered.
Here is a very informative article on traditions still yet to be fully understood, learned, and discovered.
Oral traditions are not as a rule the most reliable source of factual information and this is particularly true of cultures with written traditions. Yet a new study has found that Australian Aborigines have an extraordinarily long oral tradition that has preserved the memories of several Aboriginal groups about the inundation (severe flooding) that changed the continent’s landscape around 7,000 years ago. In fact, the author of the study claims, these memories may date back as far as 11,000 BCE.
Here is a research group you can sign up and find information on how our genetics make up our future.
Research for the Common Good. Do you know anyone who has had a heart attack or cancer? A friend who suffers from diabetes, blindness, or migraines? Or a family member who fights addiction, obesity, or mental illness?
Odds are you do. We aim to work toward cures for generations yet to come by generating and analyzing an enormous database of health and genetic information. The Genes for Good research study is a way to collect this information. This research will provide valuable biological insight into the causes of common diseases, and thus informing treatment and prevention efforts. To make the biggest advances, we need tens of thousands of participants.