Monthly Archives: December 2015

Bibliography: Genetic Genealogy

Dodson, Angela P. (2012). Rooting through the Past, Diverse: Issues in Higher Education. Henry Louis Gates Jr., the Harvard professor and cultural critic, has been so prolific as a writer that the idea of fitting his essential works into a single volume of a manageable size seems preposterous. It has been done, however, in the recently published "The Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Reader." The Gates reader contains his favorite stories which revolve around love of family, present and past. Those memories had ignited one of his life's central passions, genealogy–the search for roots–his and other people's. In the first season, he traced the origins of such celebrities as Wanda Sykes, Martha Stewart, John Legend, Harry Connick Jr., Margaret Cho, Kevin Bacon and Kyra Sedgwick. Gates would especially like for "everybody in the race" to do his or her family tree, because he believes that knowing one's ancestry untaps powerful forces for healing the deep wounds of racism in America. "One way for America to move on is to address the complexity of race, and the best way to do that is through genealogy and genetics," he says.   [More]   Descriptors: Genetics, Genealogy, African American Family, Bibliographies

Roach, Ronald (2008). The New Genealogy, Diverse: Issues in Higher Education. This article reports on developments of genealogy such as the Free African Americans Web site and the genetic ancestry tracing which point to what can be called the "new genealogy." Encouraged by the Internet's unlimited capacity as an accessible publishing space, the new genealogy has seen the unprecedented growth of genealogical research generated by many thousands of Americans who research their family's ancestry and publish their results online. One of the more fascinating developments with the new genealogy is the extent to which DNA testing is revealing the multi-racial ancestry of Americans. While there's some controversy about the claims of DNA testing firms as to how accurately they can match individuals to ancestors from specific communities and ethnic groups, there's a consensus that proper testing can roughly specify a person's relative mix of his or her ancestors' geographic origins. In other words, the tests can show the extent to which people are descended from European, African, Asian and American Indian populations, which are groupings that roughly correspond to the racial categories to which Americans are accustomed.   [More]   Descriptors: Genetics, Genealogy, African Americans, Multiracial Persons

Wittke-Thompson, Jacqueline K.; Ambrose, Nicoline; Yairi, Ehud; Roe, Cheryl; Cook, Edwin H.; Ober, Carole; Cox, Nancy J. (2007). Genetic Studies of Stuttering in a Founder Population, Journal of Fluency Disorders. Genome-wide linkage and association analyses were conducted to identify genetic determinants of stuttering in a founder population in which 48 individuals affected with stuttering are connected in a single 232-person genealogy. A novel approach was devised to account for all necessary relationships to enable multipoint linkage analysis. Regions with nominal evidence for linkage were found on chromosomes 3 (P = 0.013, 208.8 centiMorgans (cM)), 13 (P = 0.012, 52.6cM), and 15 (P = 0.02, 100cM). Regions with nominal evidence for association with stuttering that overlapped with a linkage signal are located on chromosomes 3 (P = 0.0047, 195cM), 9 (P = 0.0067, 46.5cM), and 13 (P = 0.0055, 52.6cM). We also conducted the first meta-analysis for stuttering using results from linkage studies in the Hutterites and The Illinois International Genetics of Stuttering Project and identified regions with nominal evidence for linkage on chromosomes 2 (P = 0.013, 180-195cM) and 5 (P = 0.0051, 105-120cM; P = 0.015, 120-135cM). None of the linkage signals detected in the Hutterite sample alone, or in the meta-analysis, meet genome-wide criteria for significance, although some of the stronger signals overlap linkage mapping signals previously reported for other speech and language disorders. Educational objectives: After reading this article, the reader will be able to: (1) summarize information about the background of common disorders and methodology of genetic studies; (2) evaluate the role of genetics in stuttering; (3) discuss the value of using founder populations in genetic studies; (4) articulate the importance of combining several studies in a meta-analysis; (5) discuss the overlap of genetic signals identified in stuttering with other speech and language disorders.    [More]   Descriptors: Stuttering, Genetics, Meta Analysis, Religious Cultural Groups

Gronn, Peter (2010). Leadership: Its Genealogy, Configuration and Trajectory, Journal of Educational Administration and History. This article provides a longitudinal analysis of leadership. In the first section of the article, the evidence reviewed indicates how, historically, leadership has been significant in various societal arrangements in the co-ordination of actions for collective purposes. Such co-ordination may also be facilitated through self-organisation, except that this mechanism struggles in the face of genetic human pre-dispositions to dominate, and the group-level threshold effects of small numbers. The second section discusses the leadership field's longstanding fixation with heroes. It shows how, in the face of the compelling evidence in the previous section of small group reverse dominance hierarchy and dyarchy, for example, the evidential basis for such heroic individualism is questionable. This second section also discusses distributed leadership. It argues for its abandonment and replacement as an analytical unit of analysis by the idea of leadership configurations comprising combinations of role sets. These claims are illustrated with historical and contemporary examples. The final section of the article argues for evidence-based capabilities as an antidote to heroic leadership. Here, a range of problems and possibilities associated with identifying capabilities for leading learning are discussed along with some implications for future research and theory in the field.    [More]   Descriptors: Leadership, Development, Longitudinal Studies, Role Models

Kelly, Kimberly M.; Andrews, James E; Case, Donald O.; Allard, Suzanne L.; Johnson, J. David (2007). Information Seeking and Intentions to Have Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancers in Rural and Appalachian Kentuckians, Journal of Rural Health. Context: Research is limited regarding the potential of genetic testing for cancer risk in rural Appalachia. Purpose: This study examined perceptions of genetic testing in a population sample of Kentuckians, with a focus on Appalachian and rural differences. The goals were to examine cultural and psychosocial factors that may predict intentions to test for hereditary cancer, need for help with information seeking for decision making about genetic testing for hereditary cancer, and amount of help needed with information seeking for decision making about genetic testing for hereditary cancer in this population. Methods: Analysis of data from a general social survey of adults using random-digit dialing in Kentucky (N 882). Findings: An ordinal regression found that younger age, having a family history of cancer, and greater worry predicted greater intentions to seek genetic testing. A logistic regression found that having more education, excellent subjective knowledge of genetics, and less worry about cancer predicted less need for help in seeking information about testing. An ordinal regression found that less subjective knowledge of genetics and greater worry predicted greater amount of help needed. Conclusions: Additional counseling to explain limitations of genetic testing may be needed. Further, those with less knowledge about genetics and more worry about hereditary cancer may have greater need for help with information seeking for decision making, a need that may be further exacerbated by the lack of medical professionals, particularly genetic counselors, who may provide information about genetic testing in rural, Appalachian Kentucky.   [More]   Descriptors: Decision Making, Testing, Information Seeking, Genealogy

Kelly, Kimberly M.; Love, Margaret M.; Pearce, Kevin A.; Porter, Kyle; Barron, Mary A.; Andrykowski, Michael (2009). Cancer Risk Assessment by Rural and Appalachian Family Medicine Physicians, Journal of Rural Health. Context: Challenges to the identification of hereditary cancer in primary care may be more pronounced in rural Appalachia, a medically underserved region. Purpose: To examine primary care physicians' identification of hereditary cancers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was mailed to family physicians in the midwestern and southeastern United States, stratified by rural/non-rural and Appalachian/non-Appalachian practice location (n = 176). Identification of hereditary breast-ovarian cancer (BRCA1/2), hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), and other hereditary cancers was assessed. Findings: Less than half of physicians (45%) reported having patients with cancer genetic testing. Most (70%) correctly identified the BRCA1/2-relevant scenario; 49% correctly identified the HNPCC-relevant scenario. Factor analysis of psychosocial variables revealed 2 factors: Confidence (knowledge, comfort, confidence) and importance (responsible, important, effective, need) of identifying hereditary cancer. Greater confidence was associated with use of 3 generation pedigree in taking family history. Greater knowledge and access to genetic services were associated with use of genetic testing. More recent graduation year, greater knowledge, and greater confidence were associated with identifying the BRCA1/2-relevant scenario. Greater knowledge and confidence were associated with identifying the HNPCC-relevant scenario. Conclusions: Though rural Appalachian physicians do not differ in ability to identify high risk individuals, access barriers may exist for genetic testing. Interventions are needed to boost physician confidence in identifying hereditary cancer and to improve availability and awareness of availability of genetic services.   [More]   Descriptors: Physicians, Testing, Cancer, Identification

Taylor, Isabella; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Kivity, Sara; Scheffer, Ingrid E. (2008). Benign Occipital Epilepsies of Childhood: Clinical Features and Genetics, Brain. The early and late benign occipital epilepsies of childhood (BOEC) are described as two discrete electro-clinical syndromes, eponymously known as Panayiotopoulos and Gastaut syndromes. Our aim was to explore the clinical features, classification and clinical genetics of these syndromes using twin and multiplex family studies to determine whether they are indeed distinct. Sixteen probands including seven twins were studied. Non-twin probands (n = 9) with a family history of epilepsy were included. Electroclinical seizure semiology was characterized and probands were classified into BOEC syndromes. Detailed phenotyping of relatives was performed and phenotypic patterns within families were analysed. One-third of the children in this selected series of BOEC did not have a pure syndrome, rather a mixed syndrome with features of both Panayiotopoulos and Gastaut syndromes. Monozygotic twin pairs did not show a higher concordance rate than dizygotic twin pairs suggesting that BOEC may not be a purely genetic disorder. In relatives with epilepsy, there was a mixed pattern of focal and generalized epilepsies with focal epilepsies predominating. BOEC is an electro-clinical spectrum with Panayiotopoulos and Gastaut syndromes at either end; many cases show mixed features. Clinical genetic studies highlight the multifactorial aetiology of BOEC as monozygotic twins have low concordance suggesting that non-conventional genetic influences or environmental factors play a major role. Family studies show both focal and generalized epilepsies reinforcing that these are not discrete categories of idiopathic epilepsies and are likely to share genetic determinants.   [More]   Descriptors: Genetic Disorders, Twins, Epilepsy, Children

von Zastrow, Claus (2009). Mounting a Curricular Revolution: An Interview with Henry Louis Gates, Jr, Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review. This article presents an interview with Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Harvard professor and cultural critic who has captured 25 million viewers with his PBS documentary series, African American Lives (WNET). Using genealogical research and DNA science, Gates traces the family history of 19 famous African Americans. What results is a rich and moving account of the African American experience. In the interview, Gates talks about the documentary and an idea it inspired: Use genealogy and DNA research to revolutionize the way educators teach history and science to African-American students. Gates is working with other educators to create an "ancestry-based curriculum" in K-12 schools. Many African-American students know little about their ancestors. Given the chance to examine their own DNA and family histories, Gates argues, they are likely to become more engaged in history and science classes. As they rescue their forebears from anonymity imposed by slavery, students begin to understand their own place in the American story.   [More]   Descriptors: African Americans, Elementary Secondary Education, Genetics, Slavery

Wong, Virginia C. N.; Fung, Cecilia K. Y.; Wong, Polly T. Y. (2014). Use of Dysmorphology for Subgroup Classification on Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chinese Children, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Data from 1,261 Chinese Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) patients were evaluated and categorized into dysmorphic (10.79%) and non-dysmorphic groups (89.21%) upon physical examination by the presence of dysmorphic features. Abnormal MRI/CT result, IQ scores and epilepsy were significantly associated with the dysmorphic group of ASD children. However, gender, EEG abnormality and family history and recurrence of ASD were not found to be significantly different between group statuses. It is suggested that results collected from the Chinese population generally resembles that found in the Caucasians with ethnical differences still present. Current study supports the result shown in Miles' study (Miles et al. in "Am J Med Genet" 135A:171-180, 2005), in which heterogeneity subtypes of autism of different genetic origins which could be distinguished by presence of dysmorphic features on the patients.   [More]   Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Autism, Classification

Coleman, Toni (2007). Regaining a Lost Heritage, Diverse: Issues in Higher Education. Increasingly, Blacks are turning to science and not assumptions to put "Africa" back in "African-American." The eagerness to reconnect is understandable. People robbed of their history innately want to know where they come from. Blacks are now using DNA testing to determine their African lineage. Veteran genealogists say the PBS special, "African American Lives," in which Harvard University professor Henry Louis Gates, Jr. revealed the family histories and African lineages of such celebrities as Oprah Winfrey and comedian Chris Tucker, certainly created a spike in interest in genealogy and DNA testing. Furthermore, genealogical research has become more accessible because of Web sites like, which has made detailed pre-1930s U.S. Census Bureau records and vital documents available online. Out of Blacks' desire to know where they come from, African Ancestry, Inc. was born. For $299, the company offers to analyze a person's DNA and compares it with the DNA samples of present-day Africans. But can this actually be done? This article profiles African Ancestry, Inc., discusses the controversy over its results, and describes the author's personal experience using the service.   [More]   Descriptors: African Americans, Genetics, Tests, Genealogy

Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J. (2008). Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about the presence of broader autism phenotype symptoms and major psychiatric disorders in first degree relatives. Adaptive behavior was assessed via the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Based on family history variables, age, and intelligence quotient (IQ), 87% of participants were correctly classified as having impaired or average VABS scores. Family history of depression and shyness accounted for the most variance in VABS scores, and they had the greatest influence on VABS Socialization scores in particular. Possible underlying mechanisms include genetics, psychosocial factors, and social resources. This study provides initial evidence of the importance of family history to adaptive behavior in autism and has implications for genetics and treatment.   [More]   Descriptors: Autism, Intelligence Quotient, Adjustment (to Environment), Genetics

Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Shelton, Katherine H.; Thapar, Anita (2006). Family Conflict Interacts with Genetic Liability in Predicting Childhood and Adolescent Depression, Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Objective: To test for gene-environment interaction with depressive symptoms and family conflict. Specifically, to first examine whether the influence of family conflict in predicting depressive symptoms is increased in individuals at genetic risk of depression. Second, to test whether the genetic component of variance in depressive symptoms increases as levels of family conflict increase. Method: A longitudinal twin design was used. Children ages 5 to 16 were reassessed approximately 3 years later to test whether the influence of family conflict in predicting depressive symptoms varied according to genetic liability. The conflict subscale of the Family Environment Scale was used to assess family conflict and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire was used to assess depressive symptoms. The response rate to the questionnaire at time 1 was 73% and 65% at time 2. Controlling for initial symptoms levels (i.e., internalizing at time 1), primary analyses were conducted using ordinary least-squares multiple regression. Structural equation models, using raw score maximum likelihood estimation, were also fit to the data for the purpose of model fit comparison. Results: Results suggested significant gene-environment interaction specifically with depressive symptoms and family conflict. Genetic factors were of greater importance in the etiology of depressive symptoms where levels of family conflict were high. The effects of family conflict on depressive symptoms were greater in children and adolescents at genetic risk of depression. Conclusions: The present results suggest that children with a family history of depression may be at an increased risk of developing depressive symptoms in response to family conflict. Intervention programs that incorporate one or more family systems may be of benefit in alleviating the adverse effect of negative family factors on children.    [More]   Descriptors: Structural Equation Models, Measures (Individuals), Genetics, Interaction

Delong, Robert (2007). GABA(A) Receptor Alpha5 Subunit as a Candidate Gene for Autism and Bipolar Disorder: A Proposed Endophenotype with Parent-of-Origin and Gain-of-Function Features, with or without Oculocutaneous Albinism, Autism: The International Journal of Research & Practice. Our earlier family history studies of individuals with autism found a high incidence of major affective disorder, especially bipolar disorder, and unusual talents or intellectual abilities among family members. We now describe a subgroup of such families, selected from a large clinical experience, illustrating specific features of major affective disorder, special talents or intellectual ability, and familial patterns of trait transmission, with the additional feature of oculocutaneous albinism in some cases. These observations, suggesting parent-of-origin and gain-of-function effects, considered together with recent genetic findings in the literature, suggest a genetic hypothesis possibly unifying disparate observations found in families of individuals with autism.    [More]   Descriptors: Genetics, Genealogy, Autism, Mental Disorders

Santos, Silvana; Bizzo, Nelio (2005). From "New Genetics" to Everyday Knowledge: Ideas about How Genetic Diseases Are Transmitted in Two Large Brazilian Families, Science Education. This study focuses on everyday or lay understandings of inheritance. In the northeastern Brazil, 100 individuals were interviewed in order to describe how they explain the origin of genetic disorders affecting their relatives for several generations. There were involved 60 individuals from a large consanguineous family with many members affected with a neurodegenerative disorder, SPOAN syndrome (spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy and neuropathy), and 40 individuals of another family living with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The results indicate that families here studied have built narratives to explain the origin of genetic diseases, saying that an ancestor infected with syphilis gave rise to disorders and birthmarks transmitted to descendents.   [More]   Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Family (Sociological Unit), Genetics

Lane, Harlan; Pillard, Richard C.; French, Mary (2000). Origins of the American Deaf-World: Assimilating and Differentiating Societies and Their Relation to Genetic Patterning, Sign Language Studies. The Deaf world in the United States has major roots in a triangle of New England Deaf communities that flourished in the early nineteenth century. Hypothesizes that the social fabric of these communities differed as a reflection of language and marriage practices that were underpinned. To evaluate the hypothesis, local records and newspapers, genealogies, and other publications are used to illuminate the Henniker Deaf community in New Hampshire.   Descriptors: Acculturation, Deafness, Genealogy, Marriage

Huang, Jia; Yang, Bin-rang; Zou, Xiao-bing; Jing, Jin; Pen, Gang; McAlonan, Grainne M.; Chan, Raymond C. K. (2012). Temporal Processing Impairment in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Research in Developmental Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal. The current study aimed to investigate temporal processing in Chinese children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) using time production, time reproduction paradigm and duration discrimination tasks. A battery of tests specifically designed to measure temporal processing was administered to 94 children with ADHD and 100 demographically matched healthy children. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and a repeated measure MANOVA indicated that children with ADHD were impaired in time processing functions. The results of pairwise comparisons showed that the probands with a family history of ADHD performed significantly worse than those without family history in the time production tasks and the time reproduction task. Logistic regression analysis showed duration discrimination had a significant role in predicting whether the children were suffering from ADHD or not, while temporal processing had a significant role in predicting whether the ADHD children had a family history or not. This study provides further support for the existence of a generic temporal processing impairment in ADHD children and suggests that abnormalities in time processing and ADHD share some common genetic factors.    [More]   Descriptors: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Multivariate Analysis, Genealogy, Cognitive Ability

Hayes, Dianne (2012). Finding a Cure: HBCU Students, Researchers on Front Lines of Fight against Prostate Cancer, Diverse: Issues in Higher Education. Prostate cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells in the body grow out of control in the walnut-sized prostate gland. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, African-American men have a higher rate of getting the disease and dying from it than any other racial or ethnic group. One in five African-American men has a chance of being diagnosed, and one in 20 is likely to die from it. Besides race and ethnicity, family history and increasing age are also factors that increase risk. Also, a more aggressive form of the cancer and unique genetic factors are areas that researchers are studying, as well as causes, treatments, cures and ways to improve early detection of the disease in African-American men. Leading the way in prostate cancer research, Clark Atlanta University's Center for Cancer Research and Therapeutic Development is reportedly the only university center in the U.S. that is 100 percent dedicated to research and education on prostate cancer in African-Americans.   [More]   Descriptors: Disease Control, African Americans, Race, Genealogy

Goin-Kochel, Robin P.; Abbacchi, Anna; Constantino, John N. (2007). Lack of Evidence for Increased Genetic Loading for Autism among Families of Affected Females: A Replication from Family History Data in Two Large Samples, Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice. Both the broad and narrow phenotypes of autism have been consistently observed in family members of affected individuals. Additionally, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) present four times more often in males than in females, for reasons that are currently unknown. In this study, we examined whether there were differences in familial loading of ASD among families of male versus female probands. Analyses were conducted with existing data from two distinct samples. The first sample contained 417 individuals with autism and Asperger's disorder and included information on the ASD diagnoses of their first- and second-degree relatives. The second sample consisted of 405 sibships participating in the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange, of which one or more siblings had an ASD diagnosis. Results from both samples did not suggest significant differences in the prevalence of ASD among relatives of affected males versus females.    [More]   Descriptors: Siblings, Gender Differences, Asperger Syndrome, Genetics

Birnbaum, Henrik (1975). Typology, Genealogy, and Linguistic Universals, Linguistics. Addresses some of the problems concerning the hierarchical relationship between language typology and genetic linguistics and between typology and universal grammar.   Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Descriptive Linguistics, Diachronic Linguistics, Grammar

Grizenko, Natalie; Kovacina, Bojan; Amor, Leila Ben; Schwartz, George; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha (2006). Relationship between Response to Methylphenidate Treatment in Children with ADHD and Psychopathology in Their Families, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Objective: To compare the pattern of familial aggregation of psychopathology in children who are good responders (GR) to methylphenidate (MPH) versus those who are poor responders (PR). Method: A total of 118 clinically referred children ages 6 to 12 years, diagnosed with ADHD participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized 2-week crossover trial of MPH from 1999 to 2004. A low dose of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight of MPH divided in two equal doses was used. Family history was obtained by interviewing at least one key historian relative of each subject using Family Interview for Genetic Studies. Information was collected on 342 first-degree and 1,151 second-degree relatives of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results: Forty-four subjects showed mild or no improvement (PR) and 74 showed moderate or very much improvement (GR) on MPH over placebo. First-degree relatives of GR subjects were at significantly higher risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder than the relatives of PR subjects (p less than 0.05). Second-degree relatives of the GR were at significantly higher risk of antisocial personality disorder compared to the relatives of PR subjects (p less than 0.05). Conclusions: The significantly higher presence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the first-degree relatives and of antisocial personality disorder in the second-degree relatives of GR children suggests that this group may, at least partially, be distinct from the PR group on the basis of genetic determinants.    [More]   Descriptors: Psychopathology, Personality, Personality Problems, Hyperactivity

Martin, Laurie; Milot, Alyssa (2007). Assessing the Mental Health of Adolescents: A Guide for Out-of-School Time Program Practitioners. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2007-07, Child Trends. Mental health problems can develop at any point in life and may be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics or family history of a disorder, chemical imbalances in the brain, or stressors in the environment. Adolescence is a time of great change and transition, when youth are starting to make decisions about career paths, further schooling, and living on their own. These stressors, coupled with changing peer and family interactions, may lead in some cases to mental health problems, such as depression, suicidal thoughts, and anxiety disorders, particularly if the adolescent has a family history of mental illness. It is important for out-of-school time programs to be aware of these problems and to recognize their symptoms since mental health problems during adolescence can lead to other difficulties including substance use, school dropout, and antisocial behavior. This brief summarizes the signs and symptoms of depression, suicide risk, and anxiety disorders, and suggests research questions that can help screen or monitor mental health issues. It also provides resources for out-of-school time program practitioners on these topics.    [More]   Descriptors: Dropouts, Suicide, Mental Disorders, Genetics

Hadley, Pamela A.; Holt, Janet K. (2006). Individual Differences in the Onset of Tense Marking: A Growth-Curve Analysis, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. The purpose of this study was to explore individual differences in children's tense onset growth trajectories and to determine whether any within- or between-child predictors could account for these differences. Twenty-two children with expressive vocabulary abilities in the low-average to below-average range participated. Sixteen children were at risk for specific language impairment (SLI), and 6 children had low-average language abilities. Spontaneous language samples, obtained at 3-month intervals between 2;0 and 3;0, were analyzed to examine change in a cumulative productivity score for 5 tense morphemes: third person singular present, past tense, copula BE, auxiliary BE, and auxiliary DO. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to model intercept and linear growth at 30 months and quadratic growth overall. A growth model that included mean length of utterance (MLU) and MLU growth better explained within-child productivity score growth trajectories than a parallel model with vocabulary and vocabulary growth. Significant linear growth in productivity scores remained even after a control for MLU was in place. When between-child predictors were added in the final conditional model, only positive family history approached statistical significance, improving the overall estimation of the model's growth parameters. The findings support theoretical models of language acquisition that claim relative independence of tense marking from other more general aspects of vocabulary development and sentence length. The trends for family history are also consistent with proposals implicating faulty genetic mechanisms underlying developmental language disorders. Systematic use of familial risk data is recommended in future investigations examining the relationship between late-talking children and children at risk for SLI.   [More]   Descriptors: Models, Morphemes, Intervals, Vocabulary Development

Hron, Benjamin (1998). Evolution of Human Rights in the Age of Biotechnology, Update on Law-Related Education. Considers how biotechnology affects human-rights issues; in particular, the need for reexamining concerns about reproductive technology, the rights of indigenous peoples, and the rights of future generations. Maintains that the new areas for human-rights discussions, such as germ-line manipulation and genetic screening, are unprecedented concerns for the future.   Descriptors: Biotechnology, Civil Liberties, DNA, Futures (of Society)

Lundberg, Ingvar; Nilson, Lars-Goran (1986). What Church Examination Records Can Tell Us about the Inheritance of Reading Disability, Annals of Dyslexia. Church records of adult reading abilities as evaluated yearly by Swedish priests were examined from the eighteenth century in families characterized by poor reading and good reading ability. Although descendents of poor readers tended to demonstrate lower reading scores, transmission patterns did not indicate a simple genetic mechanism.   Descriptors: Churches, Family Characteristics, Foreign Countries, Genealogy

JimŽnez-Alonso, BelŽn; Loredo-Narciandi, JosŽ Carlos (2016). "To Educate Children from Birth": A Genealogical Analysis of Some Practices of Subjectivation in Spanish and French Scientific Childcare (1898-1939), History of Education. The aim of this paper is to analyse certain techniques of subjectivation in modern child-rearing and the way in which medical discourse leads to the construction of children through those techniques. As a case study, several manuals on childcare used during the first third of the twentieth century in Spain and France have been selected. A historical-genealogical perspective is adopted, according to which childhood is not a natural or ahistorical category, but depends on cultural practices. In Western countries, these practices have been strongly influenced by expert discourses. The techniques proposed in the manuals are identified and the theoretical justification for them analysed according to the socio-cultural and historical context. It is shown in what sense the practices recommended by doctors for mothers constituted a kind of early informal education contributing to the creation of future well-educated citizens.   [More]   Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Comparative Education, Child Care, Child Rearing

Horn, Michael S.; Phillips, Brenda C.; Evans, Evelyn Margaret; Block, Florian; Diamond, Judy; Shen, Chia (2016). Visualizing Biological Data in Museums: Visitor Learning with an Interactive Tree of Life Exhibit, Journal of Research in Science Teaching. In this study, we investigate museum visitor learning and engagement at an interactive visualization of an evolutionary tree of life consisting of over 70,000 species. The study was conducted at two natural history museums where visitors collaboratively explored the tree of life using direct touch gestures on a multi-touch tabletop display. In the study, 247 youth, aged 8-15 years, were randomly assigned in pairs to one of four conditions. In two of the conditions, pairs of youth interacted with different versions of the tree of life tabletop exhibit for a fixed duration of 10 minutes. In a third condition, pairs watched a 10 minute video on a similar topic. Individual responses on a 53-item exit interview were then compared to responses from a fourth, baseline condition. Contrasting with the baseline condition, visitors who interacted with the tabletop exhibits were significantly more likely to reason correctly about core evolutionary concepts, particularly common descent and shared ancestry. They were also more likely to correctly interpret phylogenetic tree diagrams. To investigate the factors influencing these learning outcomes, we used linear mixed models to analyze measures of dyads' verbal engagement and physical interaction with the exhibit. These models indicated that, while our verbal and physical measures were related, they accounted for significant portions of the variance on their own, independent of youth age, prior knowledge, and parental background. Our results provide evidence that multi-touch interactive exhibits that enable visitors to explore large scientific datasets can provide engaging and effective learning opportunities.   [More]   Descriptors: Informal Education, Science Instruction, Museums, Evolution

Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey (2011). Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation, Anatomical Sciences Education. It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should be carried out and implemented with care and in line with latest developments in biological anthropology and related sciences. This seems to be of particular importance in the education of health professionals, as recent research suggests that better knowledge of human variation can improve clinical skills. It is also argued that relatively small curricular changes relating to the teaching of human variation can produce significant educational gains.   [More]   Descriptors: Medical Education, Anthropology, Biology, Anatomy

Davenport, K. D.; Milks, Kirstin Jane; Van Tassell, Rebecca (2015). Investigating Tree Thinking & Ancestry with Cladograms, American Biology Teacher. Interpreting cladograms is a key skill for biological literacy. In this lesson, students interpret cladograms based on familial relationships and language relationships to build their understanding of tree thinking and to construct a definition of "common ancestor." These skills can then be applied to a true biological cladogram.   [More]   Descriptors: Science Instruction, Biology, Genetics, Language Usage

Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Schneider, Jayne (2009). Comparative Study of Children with ADHD Only, Autism Spectrum Disorder + ADHD, and Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder + ADHD, Journal of Attention Disorders. Objective: Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Method: Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. Results: All three groups were highly similar in severity of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder symptoms; however, the ASD+ADHD group generally exhibited the most severe anxiety, although the CMTD+ADHD group had the most severe generalized anxiety. The two comorbid groups had the most involved medical histories and the greatest likelihood of a family history of psychopathology. Conclusion: Groups differed in clinically meaningful ways, and the apparent association between tics and anxiety may explain in part the elevated levels of anxiety in both comorbid groups. Collectively, results suggest that ADHD may be better conceptualized as a family of interrelated syndromes defined in part by comorbid conditions and that continued research is clearly warranted.    [More]   Descriptors: Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Neurological Impairments, Behavior Disorders, Antisocial Behavior

Elks, Martin A. (2005). Visual Indictment: A Contextual Analysis of "The Kallikak Family" Photographs, Mental Retardation: A Journal of Practices, Policy and Perspectives. "The Kallikak Family" is a pre-eminent text in the history of mental retardation and psychology in which Goddard (1912) claimed he proved the heritability of feeble-mindedness and the necessity of institutionalization. The book contains 14 photographs, some of which have been retouched. These photographs were interpreted in this paper within the context of clinical photography of the feeble-minded during the eugenics era, and the conclusion was made that the photographs are masterpieces of visual indictment propaganda that worked on the levels of assumed scientific objectivity, hovel imagery, mutually amplifying juxtapositions, stereotypic images of imbecility, and religious symbolism to achieve persuasiveness. A resolution of alleged "skullduggery" surrounding the retouching is presented.   [More]   Descriptors: History, Mental Retardation, Psychology, Photography

Hunt, Elizabeth (2003). Out of the Shadows, Teaching Tolerance. Adoptive children face some different developmental concerns than their non-adoptive peers. Educators need to understand that certain lessons and assignments can affect adoptive and non-adoptive children very differently. In this article, the author offers several classroom strategies for adopted students. An autobiography assignment, potentially difficult for students who have periods in their life about which they may not wish to talk, can be transformed by allowing students to focus on a particular chapter of their life.   [More]   Descriptors: Adoption, Child Development, Classroom Techniques, Autobiographies

Ellero, Nadine P. (). Health and the Amish: A Bibliographical Review. The Amish, who came to North America from Europe in the 1700s and 1800s, and settled primarily in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, New York, and Ontario, Canada, have attracted much attention and interest, particularly in the area of health care. The purpose of this bibliography is to guide the investigator toward the principal sources that cover the area of health and the Amish. It is by no means comprehensive, but the attempt was made to completely cover 1980 to 1989. During the compilation of this document, five major areas of exploration became evident and comprise the five major sections of this bibliography. These are: (1) general works (4 items); (2) health care practices and attitudes (15 items); (3) medical studies (82 items); (4) psychological studies (35 items); and (5) population studies (20 items). This listing includes monographic works, journal articles, Ph.D dissertations, reports, papers presented at symposia, government documents, and audio-visual materials.    [More]   Descriptors: Attrition (Research Studies), Birth Rate, Cancer, Genealogy